Do you want to:
a) Improve the quality of writing your students turn in at the end of the term?
b) Save time grading that stack of papers?
c) Improve your course evaluations?
d) All of the above?
One way to accomplish these goals is to invest in revising the writing assignments in your course. The best resource I’ve found for this is John Bean’s Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom, 2nd edition (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2011). If you don’t have the time and inclination to read all 330 pages, try the five strategies below, which can help move your teaching closer to where you want it to be. These tips will clarify your goals to the students and help reduce confusion.
1. Identify the genre of the assignment
Genre is one major source of student confusion, and this leads to poor writing. Calling your assignment a “paper” or “essay” reveals very little about the kind of text you are expecting to receive.
Dr. Bean (a professor of English at Seattle University) has an excellent chapter on this. The University of Alberta Writing Centre has tried to distill it and combine it with other sources into a two-page document. In short, you need to identify the intellectual goal or learning goal for the assignment first. Do you want students to articulate a teaching philosophy? Do you want them to summarize research findings and use them to recommend a course of action? Once you know what learning outcome you want, you can then select the genre or kind of writing that will move students towards that kind of learning.
2. Let students know how you’ll evaluate it
Creating a scoring guide when you develop an assignment description will save you hours when you mark the assignments. It will also save your students hours when they make decisions about how to write their versions of the assignment.
Criteria for good writing vary from instructor to instructor and discipline to discipline. You need to communicate to students what you value in the assignments they will hand in to you. We’ve also tried to summarize Dr. Bean’s advice and combine it with other research on assessment in another two-page document on the Writing Across the Curriculum website.
3. Structure in opportunities for revision
Robert Graves (no relation, unfortunately) wrote that “there is no such thing as good writing, only good rewriting.” To get high-quality writing from your students, you need to get them to draft the document in time for it to be read by someone else, and then revised.
Strategies for encouraging revision include setting aside time for students to exchange drafts and write comments, in class or online. Provide three or four guiding questions for this peer review (what is the thesis or argument of the essay? What evidence has the author provided? Can you follow the transitions from one paragraph to the next?).
You might consider a small grade for the review (two to three percent of the final grade) to encourage students to take them seriously. You might also break a large assignment (a term paper) into a few smaller assignments such as topic proposal, annotated bibliography and the term paper itself. This allows you to provide guidance along the way while students still have the chance to change their overall direction.
4. Assign low-stakes writing
Dr. Bean makes the case for “low-stakes” writing, or writing that is ungraded or for minimal grade value. This kind of writing helps students explore ideas, encourages risk-taking and promotes critical thinking. It can be used to summarize lecture points, explore out-of-the-box solutions to problems, personalize topics discussed in class, and a wide range of other possibilities.
These assignments are generally brief; some of them can be marked by other students in the class; many of them can be completed online. We’ve summarized this on another two-page document. All of the low-stakes assignments can increase student engagement with the course material, and many of them can be used to pose problems that can encourage students to read source material and participate more fully in class discussions.
5. Contact the writing centre
There’s one final strategy you may wish to consider. Many campuses have a writing centre; contact the director to see what resources they have, both people and online, or what resources they might obtain to assist students in your classes. Experienced tutors working with groups of students can work wonders in an hour.
Roger Graves is a professor of English and film studies and director of Writing Across the Curriculum at the University of Alberta.